The references from my book are here for comments and corrections
January 1, 1970NOTES AND REFERENCES
An interactive version of these notes, with updates and feedback from readers, is available at tk-name-of-website.com.
. . . so we did the work. Beeson, John, A Plea for the Indians, Ye Galleon Press, 1982 (Originally published 1857). Beeson, who quoted this man, was himself an eyewitness to the slaughteer of Oregon's native peoples in the 1850's.
. . . he was still one of us. Associated Press, ``Oregon Bids Farewell to `Free Willy' Star.'' Feb. 21, 2004 As the headline suggests, Keiko wasn't just ``one of us,'' ; he was a celebrity.
... and at hatred too. For new ways neuroscience is hooking up with political science, see Lieberman, Matthew D. et al. "Is political cognition like riding a bicycle? : How cognitive neuroscience can inform research on political thinking". Political Psychology 24:4 (12-01-03): 681-704.
For neuroscience and economics, see Montague, P. Read, and Gregory S. Berns. "Neural Economics and the Biological Substrates of Valuation". Neuron 36 (10-10-02): pp 265-284.
For neuroscientific investigations of moral quandaries, see Greene, Joshua et al. "An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment". Science 293 (2001): pp 2105-2108.
17 . . . not ``what we eat''? For example, the writer Tété-Michel Kpomassie reports that Inuit villages were seal-eating, caribou-eating, or fish eating. In the Thule region of Greenland, he writes, in a year of few seal but plentiful fish in nearby waters, some seal-eating Inuit starved. Kpomassie, Tété-Michel. An African in Greenland. New York Review Books, 2001 p. 125
... they never saw? Jacobs, Andrew. The Struggle For Iraq: The National Mood; Shock Over Abuse Reports, But Support For The Troops. The New York Times, May 8, 2004
... never seen the place? Associated Press. Murder Inspires Wave of Dutch Attacks. Nov 10, 2004
... other kind of people? Lueck, Thomas J., ``Orthodox Jews in Brooklyn Burned Banned Wigs,'' The New York Times, May 17, 2004. Page B3
...mean by ethnic group.'' Gil-White, Francisco. "The Study of Ethnicity Needs Better Categories". Unpublished paper (2004)
... time pressure they felt. Darley, John M., and C. Dan Batson. From Jerusalem to Jericho: A Study of Situational and Dispositional Variables in Helping Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27 (1973)
... who thought about Superman. Nelson, L. D., & Norton, M. I. (2005). From student to superhero: Situational primes shape future helping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, in press.
... too little on situation. Ross, Lee. "The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution process." Chap. in Advances in experimental social psychology, Volume 10. Academic Press, 1977
… personality traits for everyone. The peculiar history and widespread effects of of personality testing are described in Murphy Paul, Annie. The Cult of Personality: How Personality Tests are Leading Us to Miseducate Our Children, Mismanage Our Companies, and Misunderstand Ourselves. Free Press, 2004.
... not cheat on a spelling test. Quoted in Rosen, Jeffrey. Jurisprurience. The New Yorker (1998): 34-39.
... How did I know? I guess I was working on a principle of analogy, as did European thinkers in the Middle Ages. Cold fluids, like mountain streams and rain, are clear. Hot fluids, like blood and chowder, are cloudy. What I remember best isn't what I thought but how I thought it: Without a trace of doubt.
. . . So do novelists. For example, Marcel Proust, who describes with great sympathy a character's belief that ``... in fashioning a work of art we are by no means free, that we do not choose how we shall make it but that it pre-exists and therefore we are obliged, since it is both necessary and hidden, to do what we should have to do if it were a law of nature, that is to say to discover it.'' The philosopher Richard Rorty quotes this passage in Contingency, Irony and Solidarity (Cambridge University Press, 1989). p. 98.
... reinvent and reinvigorate it. Sapolsky, Robert M. "Circling the Blanket for God." In The Trouble with Testosterone, and other Essays on the Biology of the Human Predicament, pp 241-288. 1997
... they'd probably be disappointed. Peter Galison, interview.
. . . the cosmological constant may be back. See, for example, Ford, Kenneth W. The Quantum World: Quantum Physics for Everyone. Harvard University Press, 2004. p. 246
. . . until geologists decided that they do. The famous story of Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift and its journey from ridicule to triumph is told in Hellman, Hal. Great Feuds in Science : Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever. Wiley, 1999. Chapter 8
. . . cancelled brontosaurus . Greg Lichtenberg, a writer, made this point about brontosaurus in the literary magazine Fence (Volume 1, Number 2). The paleontologist Jack Horner has described the same sort of revisions for Tyrannosurus Rex. According to today's theory, the upright skeleton in the American Museum of Natural History that I admired as a child is all wrong, and had its neck, back and tail broken. For more on this, see pages 4-5 of Horner, John R., and Edwin Dobb, Dinosaur Lives. Harcourt Brace & Company, 1998.
... not be true. Johnson, Joshua et al. "Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary". Nature 428 (2004): 145.
. . . do much good. Grady, Denise. "Doubts Raised on a Breast Cancer Procedure." The New York Times, April 16, 1999, A1.
... adult brains can and do. Eriksson, Peter et al. "Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus". Nature Medicine 4:11 (1998): 1313-1317.
. . . primate species examined. Bush, Elliott, and John M. Allman. "The scaling of frontal cortex in primates and carnivores". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:11 (2004): 3962-3966.
. . . same color. Chesterton, G.K. Orthodoxy. Reformation Press, 2002 (Originally published 1908) Chapter 7
1: “That’s Our Biggest Difference”
... I’ll call ``human kinds.’’ I'm using ``human kinds’’ much as they’re defined by Lawrence A. Hirschfeld of the University of Michigan, with one difference. Hirschfeld says a human kind is any collection of people that a person recognizes as being ``like me'' in some fundamental and enduring way. My definition also includes temporary collections of people who don't see themselves -- not at first, anyway -- as fundamental and enduring. ``Passengers on the 8:15 ferry'' is a human kind by my lights, though it isn’t in Hirschfeld's definition. See Hirschfeld, Lawrence A. Race in the Making: Cognition, Culture and the Child's Construction of Human Kinds. MIT Press, 1996, page 13 and page 20.
The term ``human kinds’’ has also been used by the philosopher Ian Hacking of the University of Toronto. But Hacking’s definition is narrower. For Hacking, ``human kinds’’ are only the categories devised since the early 19th century by hospitals, schools, census takers and other designated experts, working with statistics and other data. ``Child abuser'' and ``person with multiple personality disorder" fit Hacking's definition of a human kind, but race and ethnicity don't.
Hacking believes those older ideas are too different from social-science type categories to fit under a single umbrella term. See Hacking, Ian. "The Looping Effects of Human Kinds." In Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate, eds. Sperber, Dan; David Premack, Ann James Premack, pp 350-394. Clarendon Press, 1995.
I prefer the widest possible definition because in people's lives, the difference between social-science and primeval notions of human kind is blurred. I've heard strong tribal feelings expressed about new-fangled, expert-defined human kinds, like ``the Attention Deficit Community'' or ``transsexuals.'' Conversely I've noticed people eager to use expert-based, scientific procedures, such as DNA testing, to verify their membership in primeval human kinds -- for instance, the Kohanim, the traditional priestly caste of the Jewish people. If modern human kinds are utterly different from primordial ones, why can people treat them all as if they were the same? I think the simplest answer might be the right one: for the questions I'm writing about, all human kinds are the same.
. . . students of Steven Pinker. A small human kind but not a trivial one. Scientists, as someone once said, are like Tibetan monks: they come in lineages. Scientists get their ideas from working with, for and against other scientists. In that process, mentors count for a great deal.
... do for faraway people. For example, a survey conducted by the American Animal Hospital Association found nearly half its North American respondents saying they would ``spend any amount of money'' to save a pet's life. Almost half had taken time from work to tend to a pet. Three-quarters said they would spend $1,000 to save a pet's life. See Pearce, Tralee. "Resuscitating Rover." Toronto Globe and Mail, August 9, 2003. Compare that $1,000 to the average given per household in the U.S. to all charities each year: $1,600. See Gardyn, Rebecca. "Generosity And Income - for Americans, those who earn the least money tend to give away the most". American Demographics December 1, 2002
.... and so on and on. Thanks to Steven Somerstein, Esq., for pointing out this distinction among his fellow veterans of the Corps.
. . . a political ally, rebuked them. For Berlusconi's quotations, see Hooper, John, and Kate Connolly. "Berlusconi Breaks Ranks Over Islam." The Guardian, Sept. 27, 2001; for American clergy, and President Bush's comment, see Niebuhr, Gustav. "U.S. 'Secular' Groups Set Tone for Terror Attacks, Falwell Says." New York Times, Sept. 14, 2001.
... in Jesus, and apologized. Fried, Joseph, personal communication. This account emerged at the trial, in 2000, of police officers accused of grotesquely abusing a Haitian man, Abner Louima. Fried, a reporter for the New York Times, covered the trial.
... of cloth, she said. Simons, Marlise. "Mother Superior's Role in Rwanda Horror is Weighed." The New York Times, June 6, 2001, page A3.
... bigger than anything else.’’ Begala, Paul, and J.C. Watts. "Crossfire". November 15, 2002. Transcript available on line at http://archives.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/11/15/cf.opinion.jc.watts/
... them to act out.’’) Lemann, Nicholas. "Buffalo Tim". The New Yorker May 25, 2004
... that it might rain. The idea that a concept ``licenses'' some inferences but not others was proposed by the philosopher Nelson Goodman.
... not Isaiah the polymath. The story is recounted in Berger, Marilynn. "Isaiah Berlin, Philosopher And Pluralist, Is Dead at 88." New York Times, Nov 7, 1997
... bones, nor hair, nor skull.’’ Muller, F. Max. Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, originally published in 1888. Page 120.
. . . life-and-death human kind. The role of "experts'' on Jews -- bureaucrats who, once they had that designation, busily found work for themselves -- is described in Browning, Christopher (with contributions by Jürgen Matthäus), The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942. University of Nebraska Press and Yad Vashem, 2004. Page 11
. . .that gets people killed. See Grann, David. "The Brand". The New Yorker (Feb 16 and 23, 2004): 157-171.
. . . over a soccer match. This war is described in Kapuscinski, Ryszard. The Soccer War. New York: Vintage, 1992.
. . . died was soccer fandom. Adang, Otto M.J. "Systematic Observations of Violent Interactions Between Football Hooligans." Chapter 9 in In-group/ Out-group behaviour in modern societies. An evolutionary perspective, eds. Thienpont, K, and R. Cliquet, Vlaamse Gemeenschap, 1999.
. . . killed 30,000 people. See Cameron, Alan. Circus Factions: Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.
. . . person who wears eyeglasses. Chigas, George, and Dmitri Mosyakov. "Literacy and Education under the Khmer Rouge". Cambodian Genocide Program (2001) Available on line at http://www.yale.edu/cgp/literacyandeducation.html .
... not enough to protect anyone. Kiernan, Ben. The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power and Genocide in Cambodia 1975-1979. Yale University Press, 1996. Chapter 7. For numbers killed by ethnicity, see page 458
. . . in their territory. Ramsey, Nancy. "Sisterhood in a Floating Powder Room; An Oscar-Nominated Documentary Captures Life Aboard the Staten Island Ferry." New York Times, Feb. 12, 2004 page E1.
... speechless. Just speechless. Quoted in Tanz, Jason. "Wounded to the Quick by an Affair Gone Astray." The New York Times, December 13, 2002, page F1.
... dumb as the next guy.’’ Feynman, Richard. "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!": Adventures of a Curious Character. W.W. Norton, 1988. page 216
... while Asians are. Shih, Margaret, Todd L. Pittinsky, and Nalini Ambady. Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance. Psychological Science 10 (1999): 80-83.
... to his scorned country.'' Cajal is quoted in Heilbron, J.L., and W.F. Bynum. "1904 and all that". Nature 426 (18-12-03): 761-764.
... in early childhood. Freud, Sigmund, Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego Norton, 1980. (Originally published tk) Page tk.
... has repressed.'' Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth. The Anatomy of Prejudices. Harvard University Press, 1996. page 34
. . . black people more intelligent. This ``melanist'' theory was promoted by Leonard Jeffries, a professor at City College in New York City. See Calabresi, Massimo. "Dispatches: Skin Deep 101". Time February 14, 1994.
... be less intelligent. See Rushton, J. Philippe. Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective (3rd Edition). Charles Darwin Research Inst Pr, 2000.
... hostile to Croatia. This claim was made by the late Franjo Tudjman, president of Croatia at the time, in 1997. It was discussed in Kohn, Marek, ``The Green Banana Gang,'' New Statesman, December 5, 1997. The implication, that citizens of modern Croatia are genetically distinct from their neighbors, is false. For example, an analysis of Bosnian and Croat mitochondrial DNA, performed by Michele Harvey of the University of Washington and her colleagues, found ``little or no genetic distance'' between the DNA from each group. Harvey described the work in a presentation at the 1987 Cold Spring Harbor Conference on Human Evolution, Oct 4- Oct 8, 1997.
This doesn't mean, of course, that the peoples of ex-Yugoslavia are completely indistinguishable -- just that the variations in their DNA do not map onto today's political map.
... use amygdala less.'' This post is still on the World Wide Web, at http://groups.google.com/groups?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&safe=off&threadm=8pdni2%24tc9%241%40nnrp1.deja.com&rnum=1&prev=/&frame=on . The article itself, which in no way suggests racial differences in amygdala function, is Berreby, David. "Scanning Brains for Insights on Racial Perceptions." New York Times, September 5th, 2000.
2: “There Are Few Questions More Curious Than This”
... a guy named Ryan again.'' Fornek, Scott, and Stepanie Zimmermann. "Sex Scandal Drives Ryan from Race." Chicago Sun-Times, June 26, 2004
. . .their common ancestors.'' Strayer, Joseph R. "France: The Holy Land, The Chosen People, and the Most Christian King." In Medieval Statecraft and the Perspectives of History, eds. Benton, John F., and Thomas N. Bisson, Princeton University Press, 1971. Pp 300-314
... variance with their own.’’ Dante, Convivio, I.5.55-66, quoted in Windeatt, Barry, Notes, in his edition of Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde, Penguin 2003 Page 375
... talking about? The quotation was written by Louis Proust in 1925. Quoted in Rosenblum, Mort. Mission to Civilize: The French Way. Doubleday, 1988. Page 21
. . . than a Dane. Hume, David. "Of National Characters." In Essays: Moral, Political and Literary, ed. Miller, Eugene F., Liberty Classics 1986 (Originally published 1777) pp 197-215
. . . define a family. Lewin, Kurt. "Bringing Up the Jewish Child." In Resolving Social Conflicts and Field Theory in Social Science, pp 122-132. American Psychological Association, 1997.
... with supposedly shrunken adrenals. Sapolsky, Robert M. "Poverty's Remains." In The Trouble With Testosterone and Other Essays on the Biology of the Human Predicament. 113-124. Scribner, 1997.
. . . use the energy at hand. quoted in ``100 Years Ago'' Nature 412 (2001): 867.
. . . trail that should be abandoned. Ray, J.J. ``If "A-b" Does Not Predict Heart Disease, Why Bother With It? A Comment On Ivancevich & Matteson.'' British Journal Of Medical Psychology 64 (1991): 85-90.
. . . it is medically useless. Myrtek, Michael. Type A behavior pattern, personality factors, disease, and physiological reactivity: A meta-analytic update. Personality and Individual Differences, 18 (1995): 491-502.
... white, male, right-handed subjects. See Dumit, Joseph. Picturing Personhood: Brain Scans and Biomedical Identity. Princeton University Press. 2003.
. . . their descendants are. See Ignatiev, Noel. How the Irish Became White. Routledge, 1995.
... called cagots. The history of this human kind is described in two books. First, Bériac, Françoise. Des Lépreux aux Cagots: Recherches sur les sociétés marginales en Aquitaine médiévale. Féderation Historique du Sud-Ouest, 1990. Second, Antolini, Paola. Au-Delà de la Rivière: Les Cagots, Histoire d'Une Exclusion. Editions Nathan, 1991.
. . . ears were shaped. This is described by an author who remembers cagots from his own childhood: Cabarrouy, Jean-Emile. Les Cagots: Une Race Maudite dan le Sud de La Gascogne. J&D Editions, 1996.
. . . mark on their clothes. See Robert, Ulysse. Les signes d'infamie au Moyen Age: Juifs, Sarrasins, heretiques, lepreux, cagots et filles publiques. H. Champion, 1891.
. . . definition well. My list of traits for an ethnic group derives from a number of definitions proposed by psychologists, sociologists, political scientists and anthropologists. Each discipline tends toward a definition that suits its questions -- psychologists focussing more on how an individual perceives someone as belonging to an ethnic group, anthropologists instead looking at how ethnicity organizes people's behavior, political scientists emphasizing how ethnicity is both a cause and effect in political struggles. There is no universal definition for the term, but there is convergence on the features I mentioned.
For a psychologists' definition of ethnicity, see Allport, Gordon, The Nature of Prejudice. Addison Wesley. 1979 (original pub. 1954), pp 85-106. An anthropological take is Barth, Fredrik. "Introduction." In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, ed. Barth, Fredrik, 9-38. Waveland Press, 1969. A politically oriented, ``interest group'' definition is in Cohen, Abner. Custom and Politics in Urban Africa. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969. Page 4
... was a cagot. Cabarrouy, Jean-Emile. Les Cagots: Une Race Maudite dan le Sud de La Gascogne. Biarritz: J&D Editions, 1996.
... simply were recategorized. Bériac, Françoise. Histoire des Lépreux au Moyen Age: Une société d'exclus. Paris: Editions Imago, 1988.
... abolished in 1894. Hansson, Anders. Chinese Outcasts: Discrimination and Emancipation in Late Imperial China. Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill, 1996. P. 13-15
... Korean society.'' Rhim, Soon Man. "The Paekchong: Untouchables of Korea". Journal of Oriental Studies 12 (1974): 30-40.
... flying wedge of police. Asch, Solomon. Social Psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1952. Page 225
3: Counting and Measuring
. . . razor blades you buy. See Gladwell, Malcolm. "The Science of Shopping". The New Yorker November 4, 1996
. . . still used today. For twin studies in particular and Galton's life and works in general, I have relied on Gillham, Nicholas Wright. Sir Francis Galton: From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics. Oxford University Press, 2001.
. . . to estimate the degrees.'' Quoted in Gillham, Nicholas Wright, op. cit. Page 191
. . . Nature versus Nurture. Ibid. Page 192
... not an individual.'' Both quotations in this paragraph are from Galton, Francis. Inquiries Into Human Faculty. Macmillan and Co., 1883. Pp 340-341
.... Cleopatra’s looks ``simply hideous.’’ Ibid.
... and saw none. Batut, Arthur. La Photographie appliquée a la Production du Type d'une famille, d'une tribu, ou d'une race. Gauthier-Villars, 1887.
... of the invisible.'' Ibid.
. . . ``portrait of a probability'' that Galton had devised. I learned about Galton's composite photos (and Wittgenstein's interest) in Sekula, Allan, "The Body and the Archive" in The Contest of Meaning: Critical Histories of Photography. MIT Press, 1989.
... any given group of men.’’ Galton, Francis, Inquiries, op. cit. page 354
... a very curious mixture.’’ Ibid., page 343
... printed numbers about human kinds. Hacking, Ian. "The Looping Effects of Human Kinds." Op. cit.
. . . his book, On Man. Quetelet's role is described in Sekula, Allan, ``The Body and the Archive,'' op. cit.
...and politically desirable. This quotation from Quetelet's Treatise on Man is in Sekula, ``The Body and the Archive,'' op. cit.
... The Bell Curve. Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Free Press, 1994.
90 ... normal person. He is not.'' Quoted in Remnick, David. "The King Leaves the Castle". The New Yorker , Feb. 17 and 25, 2003
... about real people.'' Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works. W.W. Norton & Company, 1997. p. 323
... Kampalese-Americans.'' Jussim, Lee, personal communication
... work on the same principle. See MacDonald, Heather. ``What We Don't Know Can Hurt Us,'' City Journal, Spring, 2004. For a counterpoint to MacDonald's pro-screening arguments, see the Electronic Privacy Information Center Web Page on Passenger Profiling at http://www.epic.org/privacy/airtravel/profiling.html
... was a member. Of course, this is shorthand. The computer doesn't think; it simply switches circuits ON and OFF, representing 0 and 1. At a different level of analysis, these 0's and 1's stand for symbols that the software manipulates. One level up from there, the symbols stand for things like ``destination'' and ``when ticket was bought.''
... with race or religion.'' "Testimony of Cathal L. Flynn, Federal Aviation Administration's Associate Administrator For Civil Aviation Security." In Subcommittee on Aviation, pp 12-87. Congressional Record, 1998.
... any level of suspicion.’’ United States Customs Service. "Personal Search Handbook." Washington: U.S. Department of the Treasury, 1999. Emphasis in original.
. . . breakdown by race, nationality and gender. Boyd, Dean (USCS spokesman). Interview with the author.
... department spokesman described it. Ibid.
... and his hands shaky. Boyd, Dean. Interview
. . . it only searched 6,111 people. Fletcher, Michael. "Fewer People Searched By Customs In Past Year; But Changes Yield More Drug Seizures." The Washington Post, October 19, 2000 p. A29.
... accept its categories. ``Modes of understanding'' is a phrase coined by the British philosopher Michael Oakeshott.
... a book about homosexuality.'' Quoted in Martin, Douglas. "C. A. Tripp, 83, Author of Work on Homosexuality, Dies." New York Times, May 22, 2003
... then knowledge about them.'' Hacking, Ian. "The Looping Effects of Human Kinds." In Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate, eds. Sperber, Dan David Premack, Ann James Premack, pp 350-394. Clarendon Press, 1995.
. . . term homosexual in 1868?'' I follow the history of the term given in Norton, Rictor. "A Critique of Social Constructionism and Postmodern Queer Theory, "The Term 'Homosexual'," 2002. Available on line at
... any other Adams and Eves.'' Kramer, Larry. "Why Gay Identity Should Evolve Toward a More Complete Culture." LGNY (Lesbian and Gay New York), July 6, 1997. Page 29
... they had no history.'' Quoted in Sullivan, Will. "Sterling sexuality: Was Yale patron gay?" Yale Daily News, April 3, 2003
... was more cautious. See Tripp, C.A., The Intimate World of Abraham Lincoln. Free Press, 2005
... our words and our species itself. On the abundance of homosexual behavior in many species, see Bagemihl, Bruce, Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity Stonewall Inn Editions, 2000
... modern Papua New Guinea another. See Herdt, Gilbert. Guardians of the Flutes, Volume 1 : Idioms of Masculinity. University of Chicago Press, 1994.
... three, sex between women. See Cantarella, Eva. Bisexuality in the Ancient World. Yale Nota Bene, 2002.
... thinking to our own. For more about this translation process see Davidson, Arnold, The Emergence of Sexuality: Historical Epistemology and the Formation of Concepts, Harvard University Press, 2002; and also Halperin, David M., How to Do the History of Homosexuality. University of Chicago Press, 2004.
For a spirited defense of essentialism applied to gay people, see Norton, Rictor. The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity. Cassell, 1997.
. . . claims they’re arbitrary. See Elgin, Catherine Z. Between the Absolute and the Arbitrary. Cornell University Press, 1997.
4: Birds of a Feather
... was the category ``game.'' Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Philosophical Investigations. Trans. G.E.M. Anscombe. Blackwell, 2001. Pp. 27-28
. . . this can’t be right. Wittgenstein, Ludwig. The Blue and Brown Books. Harper Torchbooks, 1960. Page 18.
... chair than electric chair. Rosch, Eleanor. "Cognitive Representations of Semantic Categories". Journal of Experimental Psychology General 104 (1975): pp 192-253.
... any other single symptom. Kunda, Ziva. Social Cognition: Making Sense of People. Cambridge and London: MIT Press, 1999. pp 33-34
. . .a two of six list. The definition is available on line at http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/dysd.htm
...makes sense to the perceiver.’’ Davidsson, Paul. ``Concept Acquisition by Autonomous Agents: Cognitive Modeling versus the Engineering Approach’’ Available on line at http://www.cs.lth.se/Research/AI/Papers/LUCS-12.pdf
...important traits among species. Gopnik, Alison et al. The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us About the Mind. Harper Perennial, 2000.
... a few basic principles. This view is laid out in Keil, Frank C. "The Birth and Nurturance of Concepts." In Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture, 234-254. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
... out of a burning home.'' Barsalou's reference to ``ad hoc'' categories like ``things to take from a housefire'' is described and quoted in Lakoff, George. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Page 45
... they’re supposed to solve. This view of the mind was worked out by the pragmatist thinkers William James, John Dewey, George Herbert Mead and their intellectual heirs. It holds, simply, that the meaning of a word or idea or symbol is the effects it has in the world. One of the shortest and most lucid discussions of this philosophy is James's own -- James, William. Pragmatism. Prometheus Books, 1991. (Originally published 1908.)
... I felt quite at home. Charles Johnston. "Three Came Back" In Drimmer, Frederick, ed., Captured by the Indians: 15 Firsthand Accounts 1750-1870, Dover Publications Inc., 1985, pages 183-215 . Johnston's story was originally published in 1827.
... veterans or vice versa.'' Binzen, Peter. Whitetown, U.S.A. Vintage Books, 1970. Page 215
... I'm their advocate. Quoted in Ferguson, Barbara. "A POW Translator Talks." Arab News, April 4, 2003 Available online at www.arabnews.com
... race rather than occupation. L. Sinclair, and Z. Kunda. "Reactions to a Black Professional: Motivated Inhibition and Activation of Conflicting Stereotypes." J Pers Soc Psychol 77, no. 5 (1999): 885
... think of me as police.'' Quoted in Wilgoren, Jodi. "Michigan Officers Fear Pressure of U.S. Plan." New York Times, November 17, 2001.
... Bureau of the Census. Rodriguez, Clara E. Changing Race: Latinos, the Census, and the History of Ethnicity in the United States. New York: New York University Press, 2000. Page 162
... information in a smart way.'' Renart, Alfonso, personal communication, 2004
... due to founder effects. Behar, DM et al. "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European populations.". Human Genetics 114 (2004): 354-365.
... of sophistication and urbanity. Tuchman, Gaye, and Harry G. Levine. "New York Jews and Chinese Food: The Social Construction of an Ethnic Pattern". Contemporary Ethnography Vol 22 No 3 (1992): 382-407.
. . . had plaid to sell. Trevor-Roper, Hugh. "The Invention of Tradition: The Highland Tradition of Scotland." In The Invention of Tradition, eds. Hobsbawm, Eric, and Terence Ranger, 15-43. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
. . . Hutu and Tutsi spheres. Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton University Press, 2001. See especially Chapters 2 and 3.
. . . Middle Eastern political Islam.'' Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. "Ethnic identity, national identity, and intergroup conflict". Talk delivered at the Rutgers Symposium on Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict, and Conflict Reduction, New Brunswick, N.J., April 23, 1999.
... is monstrous and meaningless.'' Galton, Francis. Inquiries Into Human Faculty. London: Macmillan and Co., 1883. Page tk
... half to another mark.'' Galton, Francis. op. cit. page tk
... with objective, valid measurements. For examples of this argument, see Sarich, Vincent, and Frank Miele. Race: The Reality of Human Differences. Westview Press, 2004; Rushton, J. Philippe. Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective (3rd Edition). Charles Darwin Research Inst Pr, 2000.; and Entine, Jon. Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We're Afraid to Talk About It. Public Affairs, 2000.
... Japanese and Native-Americans. Diamond, Jared. "Race Without Color". Discover (November, 1994): pp 83-89.
... about these alternate universes? Rushton, J. Philippe. "Statement on Race as a Biological Concept." American Renaissance, November 4, 1996. Available online at http://www.amren.com/rushton.htm
... a bleeding stomach ulcer. Witzig, Ritchie. "The Medicalization of Race: Scientific Legitimization of a Flawed Social Construct". Annals of Internal Medicine 125 (1996): pp 675-679.
...Irish names began with one. Gates, Henry Louis, Talk delivered at the Rutgers Symposium on Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict, and Conflict Reduction, New Brunswick, N.J., April 23, 1999.
... different kinds of people. Described by Hacking, Ian, ``The Looping Effects of Human Kinds,'' op. cit.
... historians don't agree. For different theories about the origin of today's idea of ``race,'' see Banton, Michael. Racial Theories. Cambridge University Press, 1998; and Hannaford, Ivan. Race: The History of an Idea in the West. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. In Race in the Making, op. cit., Lawrence Hirschfeld provides a brief rundown of historical race theories on pages 33-34
... racial categories don't line up. Rodriguez, Clara, Op. cit. page tk
... the documents after death. Hahn, R. A. "Why race is differentially classified on U.S. birth and infant death certificates: an examination of two hypotheses [see comments]". Epidemiology 10 (1999): 108-111. See also, Hahn, R. A. Sickness and Healing: An Anthropological Perspective. Yale University Press, 1995. Page 113
... Jews, Italians and Irish. This development is described in Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. "Ethnicity, Race and Nation." In The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Migration, eds. Guibernau, Montserrat, and John Rex. Polity Press, 1997. Pp 33-41
... needs to be believed. Weber, Max. "What Is an Ethnic Group." eds. Guibernau, Montserrat, and John Rex, 15-26. Polity Press, 1997.
... men in the other tribes. Chaix, R et al., "The genetic or mythical ancestry of descent groups: lessons from the Y chromosome.". Am J Hum Genet 75 (2004): 1113. Where stories of common descent did match the genetics was at the smaller-scale level of clans and lineages, this paper reports. Members of a particular clan who say they’re kin are in line with the genetic markers, but Kazakhs who say this about their entire ethnic group are not, literally, correct.
... on ethnic conflict. Horowitz, Donald L. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. University of California Press, 1985. Page 53
... van den Berge's term `ethny' . Berghe, Pierre L. van den. The Ethnic Phenomenon. Praeger Paperback, 1987. Page 22
....as a branch of zoology. See Eagleton, Terry, Ideology: An Introduction. Verso, 1991
... of race and ethnicity. Rodriguez, Clara E. Changing Race: Latinos, the Census, and the History of Ethnicity in the United States. New York University Press, 2000. Page 80
...from marrying a white person. Ibid., page tk
5: Mind Sight and Kind Sight
... signs of other things. Saint Augustine quoted in Pastoureau, Michel. Une histoire symbolique du Moyen Âge occidental. Seuil, 2004. Page 9
... about kinds of people. This definition of a code as the link between one realm and another is that of Marcello Barbieri, a theoretical biologist. See Barbieri, Marcello. The Organic Codes: The Birth of Semantic Biology. Casa Editrice Pequod, 2001. Pp 89-95
... a person in motion. This phenomenon is discussed in Adolphs, Ralph. "Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Social Behaviour". Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 (March, 2003): 165-178
... look for an action. Brown, Roger. "Linguistic determinism and the parts of speech." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 55 (1957): 1-5. I was led to this study by the discussion of it in Marcus, Gary. The Birth of the Mind: How a Tiny Number of Genes Creates the Complexities of Human Thought. Basic Books, 2004. Page 29
... that were completely random. Ibid., page 29
... Chomsky once said. Chomsky, Noam. Interview with the author, 1992
... when nobody is doing it. Bloom, Paul. Interview with the author, 2002
... except for some trivialities.'' Chomsky, Noam. Interview, 1992
... ignore evidence from the other. For the ``shaped by experience'' argument, see Quartz, Steven R., and Terrence J. Sejnowski. Liars, Lovers, and Heroes: What the New Brain Science Reveals About How We Become Who We Are. William Morrow, 2002. For the opposite, ``it's all built in'' case, see Gazzaniga, Michael S. The Mind's Past. University of California Press, 2000.
... he told a reporter. Sullivan, C.J. "Lifesaver: Save the Jumpers." New York Press, January 1, 2003
. ... received a particular signal. Hubel, D.H, and T.N. Wiesel, "Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat's striate cortex.". J Physiol 148 (1959): 574.
... than do ordinary people. This finding is described in Kandel, Eric R, and S Mack. "A parallel between radical reductionism in science and in art." In The Self: From Soul to Brain, eds. Ledoux, Joseph, Jacek Debiec, Henry Moss. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Vol. 1001, 2003. Pp 272-294.
. . . actually shrink. Ibid.
... genitalia on the sensory map. Ramachandran, V.S., and Sandra Blakeslee. Phantoms in the Brain. New York: 1998. Page 35
... into a new signal. Antonio, R. Damasio. "The brain binds entities and events by multiregional activation from convergence zones". Neural Comput. 1 (1990): 123-132.
... kind of information: Flavor. As described in Rolls, Edmund T. "The Orbitofrontal Cortex." In The Prefrontal Cortex: Executive and Cognitive Functions, eds. Roberts, A. C. T. W. Robbins, L. Weiskrantz, Oxford University Press, 1998. Pp 67-86.
... Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett. See Bartlett, F.C. Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge, 1932. My account of Bartlett’s work and impact draws largely on Brewer, William F. ``Bartlett’s concept of the schema and its impact on theories of
knowledge representation in contemporary cognitive psychology.’’ Online paper, 2001. Available at:
. . . converged on the group estimate. Sherif, Muzafer. The Psychology of Social Norms. Octagon Books, 1936. pp 93-106
... they changed their estimates. Asch, Solomon. "Effects of group pressure on the modification and distortion of judgements." In Readings in Social Psychology, eds. Maccoby, E.E. T.M. Newcomb, E.L. Hartley, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958.
. . . where he's not alone. This study is briefly described in Sunstein, Cass. "Hoover's Court Rides Again". The Washington Monthly September, 2004
. . . communicating with the other. Rozin, Paul et al. "Disgust." In Handbook of the Emotions, eds. Lewis, Michael, and Jeannette Haviland-Jones, pp 637-653. Guilford, 2000.
... over into their scribbling. Macrae, Neil. Talk presented at conference on Social Cognitive Neuroscience, Los Angeles, April, 2001
. . . there at all. Thomas, Archie. "Reel Nemo Spurs Run on Real Fish." Variety, December 8, 2003.
... troubled people as fakes. Rosenhan, D.L., On being sane in insane places. Science, 1973. 179(70): pp. 250-8.
6: Looking for the Codes
... other sights don't. ref tk Marcus
... their playmate's face. This experiment, by Charman et al., is described in Schulkin, Jay. Roots of Social Sensibility and Neural Function. MIT Press, 2000. Page 101
... happily ever after. Heider, Fritz, and Mary-Ann Simmel. "An Experimental Study of apparent behavior". American Journal of Psychology 57 (1944): pp 243-259.
... `get' this kind of movie. Gergely, G et al. "Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age". Cognition 56 (1995): pp 165-193.
. . . had cartoon faces on them. These findings by Valerie Kuhlmeier, a psychologist, are reported in Galin, Alexandra. "Babies and emotional intelligence". Yale Alumni Magazine January-February 2004
... find this very difficult. Haddon, Mark. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. Doubleday, 2002. Page 116
. . . it sounded like gibberish.'' Grandin, Temple. "My Experiences with Visual Thinking Sensory Problems and Communication Difficulties." 2000. Available from autism.org. http://www.autism.org/temple/visual.html.
. . . hanging in the air.'' Sacks, Oliver. "An Anthropologist on Mars". The New Yorker (December 27, 2003)
... foreigners in any society.'' Sinclair, Jim. "Don't Mourn for Us." Available from ani.autistics.org. http://ani.autistics.org/dont_mourn.html.
... dent their feelings.'' Quoted in Cole, Jonathan. About Face MIT Press, 1997. Page 97
... the language of expressions. For more on this software, called MindReading, see the web site: http://www.jkp.com/mindreading/ .
... what is this person?'' This distinction was pointed out by the Dartmouth social psychologist C. Neil Macrae. Macrae, C. Neill. Talk delivered at UCLA Symposium on Social Cognitive Neuroscience, Los Angeles, April 26, 2001
... scripts like that.'' Hirschfeld, Lawrence. Interview
... they must be fakes. See Brothers, Leslie. Friday's Footprint: How Society Shapes the Human Mind. Oxford University Press, 1997. Chapter 1
woorngly palced lteters. This phenomenon was first described by Graham Rawlinson in an unpublished dissertation at the University of Nottingham: Rawlinson, Graham. "The Significance of Letter Position in Word Recognition." 1976.
A Cambridge researcher, Matt Davis, tracks research on the idea on his web site: http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/personal/matt.davis/Cmabrigde/
... psychologist, Donald C. Campbell. The list of features that Campbell worked out is summarized in LeVine, Robert Alan and Campbell, Donald T. Ethnocentrism. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1971. Page 105.
... they are all One. McNeill, William H. Keeping Together in Time: Dance and Drill in Human History. Harvard University Press, 1997.
... human kind codes. Jesse Jackson said ``let's talk black talk'' to a group of African-Americans, one of whom was the reporter Milton Coleman. Coleman wrote up Jackson's ``Hymietown'' remark. The story is recounted in Weiss, Philip, ``Hazy, Brilliant Hitchens Strokes Anti-Clinton Sword,'' New York Observer, May 3, 1999. Page 33.
. . . mean an economic class. Hirschfeld, Lawrence A. "Is the Acquisition of Social Categories Based on Domain-Specific Competence or on Knowledge Transfer?" In Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture, eds. Hirschfeld, Lawrence A., and Susan Gelman, pp 201-233. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
... he is a Yale man.)'' Lippmann, Walter. Public Opinion. The Macmillan Company, 1922. Page 89
... and see it whole.'' Ibid. page 114
... such as social psychologists. For the history of stereotype research, I relied on two articles.
First, Schneider, David J. "Modern Stereotype Research: Unfinished Business." In Stereotypes and Stereotyping, eds. Macrae, C. Neil Charles Stangor, Miles Hewstone, pp 419-454. Guilford Press, 1996.
Second, Stroebe, Wolfgang, and Chester A. Insko. "Stereotype, Prejudice and Discrimination: Changing Conceptions in Theory and Research." In Stereotyping and Prejudice: Changing Conceptions, eds. Bar-Tal, Daniel Carl F. Graumann, Arie W. Kruglanski, Wolfgang Stroebe, pp 3-37. Springer-Verlag, 1989.
... declared at mid-century. Allport, Gordon W. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1979 (original edition, 1954) Page 191
... a sluggard's best friend.'' Quoted in Macrae, C. Neil, and Galen V. Bodenhausen. "Social Cognition: Categorical Person Perception". British Journal of Psychology 92 (2001): pp 239-255.
... other elderly people. Hess, T.M. et al. "The Impact of Stereotype Threat on Age Differences in Memory Performance". Journal Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 58:1 (2003): pp 3-11.
... on a subsequent test. Steele, Claude, and J. Aronson, ``Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans.'' Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69 (1995): pp 797-811.
...stereotype is even greater. C. Neil Macrae, talk delivered at Conference on Social Cognitive Neuroscience, Los Angeles, April 26-28, 2001
... my truck!' he cried.'' Moore, Paul. Op. cit. p. 124
. . . our conscious minds. A controversy in social psychology centers on what it means to say stereotypes are ``automatic.'' John Bargh, a psychologist at Yale, argues that stereotype use is highly automatic, like a lot of other mental processes. Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462 - 479.
7: How Mind Makes World
... ... Bertrand Russell. Russell, Bertrand. An inquiry into meaning and truth. G. Allen and Unwin, 1948. Page 15
. . . before his surgery. Prusky, Glenn, a neuroscientist at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, personal communication.
... depression makes its home. For example, two researchers recently warned: ``with the advent of human neuroimaging over the last 15–20 years, there have been some who use this technique with its pretty pictures of coloured blobs on brain slices almost as a modern-day phrenology.'' Kringelbach, Morten L., and Edmund T. Rolls. "The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: Evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology". Progress in Neurobiology 72 (2004): 341–372.
... pointed out its flaws. LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. Penguin Books, 2002. Pp 220-230
... noticed and the second.'' Paul Whalen, interview
... in nature from its body. Damasio, Antonio R. Descartes' Error : Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. Quill, 1995. On the need to put Descartes behind us and understand the mind as ``embodied,’’ see Varela, Francisco J. et al. The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. The MIT Press, 1992; and Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
. . . McCrone puts it. McCrone, John. ``Reasons to Forget.'' Times Literary Supplement, Jan. 30, 2004
. . . under a different name. This debate is mentioned in Kringelbach and Rolls, op. cit.
... medial temporal lobe?'' Murray, Elizabeth. ``What, If Anything, Is the Medial Temporal Lobe?'' A Talk delivered at the 2003 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Nov. 12, 2003
... what they should be.'' Swanson, Lawrence. Talk given at meeting on The Human Brain Project, Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, November, 2003
... mental life, either. See Brothers, Leslie, op. cit., pp 113-115
... that underlie them.'' Adolphs, Ralph. "Cognitive Neuroscience Of Human Social Behaviour". Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 March, 2003: pp 165-178.
... Dabbs and his colleagues. Bernhardt, Paul C. et al. "Testosterone changes during vicarious experiences of winning and losing among fans at sporting events". Physiology and Behavior 65:1 (1998): 59-62.
... other strategy was better. Bechara, A., et al. "Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex.". Cognition 50 (1994): 7-15
... back to A. Varela, Francisco. Ethical Know-How: Action, Wisdom and Cognition. Stanford University Press, 1999. Pages 46-47
... part of the orbitofrontal cortex. Rolls, Edward op. cit.
... about the sight. Kawasaki, Hiroto et al. "Single-neuron responses to emotional visual stimuli recorded in human ventral prefrontal cortex". Nat Neurosci 4, No. 1 (01-01-01): 15-16.
... his orbitofrontal cortex. Damasio, H et al. "The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient." Science 264 (1994): 1102-1105.
... basically a myth, Macmillan, Malcolm. An Odd Kind of Fame: Stories of Phineas Gage. The MIT Press, 2002. Macmillan fires skepticism in all directions. His doubts about Damasio's story are described on pp 80-85
... have social-rule trouble. Anderson, SW et al. "Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex.". Nat Neurosci 2 (1999): 1032-1037.
. . . no preferences at all. Milne, Elizabeth, and Jordan Grafman. "Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Lesions in Humans Eliminate Implicit Gender Stereotyping". The Journal of Neuroscience 21, RC150 (2001): pp 1-6.
... group of other people. Eisenberger, NI, and MD Lieberman. "Why rejection hurts: a common neural alarm system for physical and social pain.". Trends Cogn Sci 8 (2004): 294-300.
... in an MRI brain scan. Wemara Lichty, a psychologist at Stanford, described this work to me in a conversation in 2003.
... region to `burn out.' Yamasue, H et al. "Voxel-based analysis of MRI reveals anterior cingulate gray-matter volume reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder due to terrorism.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 (2003): 9039-9043.
... had been blanked out. Adolphs, R. et al. "Recognition of facial emotion in nine individuals with bilateral amygdala damage". Neuropsychologia 37 (1999): pp 1111-1117.
. . . guilt about about misdeeds. This list is based on Sec. F60.2 of the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, World Health Organization,
... it responds to music. Blood, Anne J., and Robert J. Zatorre. "Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98:20 (9-25-01): 11818-11823.
... paintings were lovely. Cela-Conde, Camilo J. et al. "Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the human visual aesthetic perception". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (04-20-04): 6321-6325.
... religious practice: meditation Newberg, Andrew et al. "Cerebral blood flow during meditation". European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2000)
... important or comforting activities. Noted in Boyer, Pascal. Religious thought and behaviour as by-products of brain function". Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7:3 (2003): 119.
8: Inventing Tradition in Oklahoma
... he turned away. This account of Sherif's early life is taken from Trotter, Robert J. "Muzafer Sherif: A Life of Conflict and Goals". Psychology Today, September, 1985: pp 55-59.
... less German than they had before. Described in Kaplan, Marion A. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press, 1998.
... not the case in the 1990's. Elliott, Andrea. "Study Finds City's Muslims Growing Closer Since 9/11." The New York Times, October 5, 2004. Page B4
... primitives and children. Le Bon, Gustave. The Crowd. Viking Press, 1960. Original English-language edition 1896. Pages 19, 23 and 25
... Wednesday lunches. See Reicher, Stephen. "The Crowd' century: Reconciling practical success with theoretical failure". The British Journal of Social Psychology 35 (1996): 535-553.
... contained as a predisposition.'' Quoted in Sherif, Muzafer. In Common Predicament: Social Psychology of Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation. Houghton Mifflin, 1966. Pp. 9-10
... men toward one another.'' Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. Norton, 1989. tk -page
... to be authoritarian traits. Adorno, Theodor et al. The Authoritarian Personality. Norton, 1982. (Abridged) Original edition, 1950. tk-page cite
... Le Bon was wrong. See Reicher, Stephen. op. cit.
. . . a lid on things. The account of Adang's work in this paragraph is based on (1) Adang, Otto M.J. "Systematic Observations of Violent Interactions Between Football Hooligans." In In-group/ Out-group behaviour in modern societies. An evolutionary perspective, eds. Thienpont, K, and R. Cliquet, Vlaamse Gemeenschap, 1999.
and (2) Adang, Otto, interview, 1997.
... watched the body burn. Described in Allen, James. "Notes on the Plates." In Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Twin Palms Publishers, 2000. pp 165-209
... more touchy-feelly. See Brown, Rupert. "Authoritarianism." In The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, eds. Manstead, Antony S.R., and Miles Hewstone, pp 76-78.: Blackwell Publishers, 1995.
. . . conceited in 1948. All the studies mentioned in this paragraph are described in Oakes, Penelope J. et al. Stereotyping and Social Reality. Blackwell, 1994. Pp 14-16
... ``war-monger’’ and ``cruel.’’ Ibid. p 17
... Americans with positive words. Diab, L. N. (1963). Factors Affecting Studies of National Stereotypes. Journal of Social Psychology, 59, 29-40.
... artistic, cultured and democratic. Diab, L. N. (1963). Factors Determining Group Stereotypes. Journal of Social Psychology, 61, 3-10.
... the Greeks as slaves. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Harvard University Press, 1982. Page 90
... outgoing types, or Republicans. Fiske, Alan P., and Nick Haslam. ``Social Cognition Is Thinking About Relationships.'' Current Directions in Psychological Science 5:131–148. 1996
... beyond religion and politics.’’ Konner, Melvin. "'Hatred': When Bad People Do Bad Things." New York Times Book Review, August 3, 2003.
... ``experimental anthropology.'' Sherif, Muzafer, Harvey, O.J., White, B. Jack, Hood, William R., and Sherif, Carolyn W. The Robbers Cave Experiment: Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation. Wesleyan University Press, 1961.
... and challenge them.'' Ibid., page tk.
... but not see? Ibid. Page 84
... Communists because they had been killed. Dwyer, Leslie, and Degung Santikarma. ""When the World Turned to Chaos'': 1965 and Its Aftermath in Bali, Indonesia." In The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective, eds. Gellately, Robert, and Ben Kiernan, 289-305. Cambridge University Press, 2003. See especially page 294
. . . the Eagle way. Sherif, Muzafer, et al., The Robbers Cave Experiment: Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation. Op. cit. , page 83.
... a Rattler custom. Ibid. Page 70
... southsider clique dissolved. Ibid. Page 71
... the group average. Sherif, Muzafer. The Psychology of Social Norms. Octagon Books, 1936. Pp 93-106
... proper Rattler emblem. Sherif et al., The Robbers Cave Experiment. op. cit. page 85
... could not have done it. Ibid. Page 77
... a treasure hunt. Ibid. Page 100
. . . little Black Sambo.'' Ibid. Page 101
... to be hostile. Ibid. Page 109
... any boy got hurt. Ibid, page 115
... as Sherif put it. Ibid. Page 151
... a nasty business.'' Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works. W.W. Norton & Company, 1997. Page 524
... The Nurture Assumption. Harris, Judith Rich. The Nurture Assumption. New York: The Free Press, 1998. Page 127
... recognize this affinity. For conservative, Christian praise of Darwinian pessimism about human nature, see McGinnis, John O. "The Origin of Conservatism". National Review , Dec. 22, 1997. Pp. 31-36.
... unblock the spigot. Sherif, M., et al., The Robbers Cave Experiment, op. cit. page 163
... with the Rattlers?'' Ibid. P 166
... not each camper. Ibid. P 167
... the other boy just laughed. Sherif et al., op. cit. page tk
... they had to choose. Sherif at al., op. cit. page tk
... Eagle songs and Rattler songs. Ibid. p. 181
... ignored the Rattler-Eagle lines completely. Ibid. Pp 194-5
... Ghost v. Devil. Diab, Lutfy N. "A Study of Intragroup and Intergroup Relations Among Experimentally Produced Small Groups". Genetic Psychology Monographs 82 (1970): 49-82.
. . . over the political ally. Rabbie, Jacob M., and Karel Huygen. "Internal Disagreements and Their Effect on Attitudes Toward In- and Outgroups". International Journal of Group Tensions 4 (1974): 222-246.
...change their attitude.'' (Emphasis added.) Adler, Elkan Nathan. Ed. Jewish Travellers: A Treasury of Travelogues from Nine Centuries. Harmon Press, 1966. Page 215
...religious ceremonies and processions. Nirenberg, David. Communities of Violence. Princeton University Press, 1996. Page 157
... anyone who said otherwise. Nirenberg, David. op. cit. Page 35.
. . . to Christian law courts. Ibid. p. 37
. . . pasture animals together. Ibid. p. 39
... at least 300 years. Sahlins, Peter. Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees. University of California Press, 1989. Page 112
... fairly recent inventions.'' Laitin, David D. "Comment on `Are Ethnic Groups Biological Species in the Human Brain?". Current Anthropology 42 (2001): 542-543.
... position in the caste system. Levine, Nancy E. ‘‘Caste, State, and Ethnic Boundaries in Nepal,’’ Journal of Asian Studies 46/1 (1987): pp 71-88
... for different purposes.'' Brewer, Marilynn B. "Ethnocentrism and Its Role in Interpersonal Trust." In Scientific Inquiry and the Social Sciences: A Volume in Honor of Donald T. Campbell, eds. Brewer, Marilynn B., and Barry E. Collins, 345-360. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1981. Page 350
... Ibo folkways.'' See Cohen, Abner. Custom and Politics in Urban Africa. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969.
... ethnic identity. Leach, Edmund R. Political Systems of Highland Burma. London: London School of Economics and Political Science, 1954.
... by Pathan rules. See Barth, Fredrik. "Introduction." In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, ed. Barth, Fredrik, pp 9-38. Waveland Press, 1998 (originally published 1969)
... Culture Through Choosing Heritage.'' Leone, Mark P. ``Creating Culture Through Choosing Heritage’’ Current Anthropology 42 (2001) P. 582
9: Them, We Burn
… Michael Oakeshott. English philosopher and historian. This quotation is from Oakeshott, Michael. "On the Human Condition." In Rationalism in Politics and Other Essays, 465-487. Liberty Fund, 1991.
… James Morone. Professor of Political Science at Brown University. This quotation is from Morone, James. Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History. Yale University Press, 2003.
... cancelling his subscription. Lindsey, Alan. ``Eddylines'' (letters column), Paddler, March/April 2003
. . . ill-suited to perform.'' Quinn, Naomi. "Cultural Selves." In The Self: From Soul to Brain, eds. LeDoux, Joseph Jacek Debiec, Henry Moss, pp 145-176 . Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences, Volume 1001. 2003.
... right and obvious. Ibid.
. . . to wait for the light?'' Quoted in Quinn, Naomi, op. cit. Footnote 7
. . . to the next page.'' ``Eddylines,'' (letters column), Paddler, July/August 2003.
. . . there are no offspring? See Haidt, Jonathan. "The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment.". Psychol Rev 108 (2001): pp 814-834.
... twice a week. Haidt, Jonathan et al. "Differentiating diversities: Moral diversity is not like other kinds." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 33 (2003): 1-36.
... he's Lerian. Jay, Peter (Translator). "Phokylides." In The Greek Anthology, ed. Jay, Peter. Penguin Books, 1981. Pp 36-37
. . . opposition -- from the law. Allport, Gordon W. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1979 (original edition, 1954) pp 261-282
304 ... of Michigan Law School. The Allportian argument for promoting diversity was colloquially summed up by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg when this case was argued before the U.S. Supreme Court, in her questions for the U.S. Solicitor General, Theodore Olson.
Referring to an affirmative-action approach to admissions, Justice Ginsburg said: ``The reason for it is they want to produce a diverse class and the reason they want to do that, using it as a plus, they say, is [...] they think it breaks down stereotypes within the class. They think it's educationally beneficial. They think it supplies a legal profession that will be diverse and they think a legal profession like business and the military that is diverse is good for America from a civics point of view, et cetera, breaks the cycle.'' Detroit News, ``Law school case: Argument in support of petitioners,'' April 1, 2003.
This transcript, as recorded by the Detroit News, is also available on line at http://www.detnews.com/2003/schools/0304/01/schools-125391.htm
... is a muddle. See Chapter 3 in Forbes, H.D., Ethnic Conflict: Commerce, Culture and the Contact Hypothesis. 1997, New Haven: Yale University Press.
. . . warm, funny and clever.'' Quoted in Gilbert, Susan. "A Conversation With/Elliot Aronson; No One Left to Hate: Averting Columbines." New York Times, March 27, 2001. More on the jigsaw classroom can be found on Aronson's Web Site:
... them, we burn.'' Fish, Stanley. " “Them We Burn: Violence and Conviction in the English Department.” In English As a Discipline or, Is There a Plot in This Play?, ed. Raymond, James C., pp 160-173. University of Alabama Press, 1996.
... logically the same. See Unger, Peter K. Living High and Letting Die: Our Illusion of Innocence. Oxford, 1996. Bob's Bugatti is succinctly described in Singer, Peter. "The Singer Solution to World Poverty". New York Times Magazine, Sept. 5, 1999.
. . . increment of distance. For example, see de Waal, Frans. Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Harvard University Press, 1996. page 213
... during the Christmas season. Dubner, Stephen J., and Steven D. Levitt. "What the Bagel Man Saw". New York Times Magazine June 6, 2004
... universality and consistency.'' Kohlberg, Lawrence. "The Child as Moral Philosopher". Psychology Today September 1968 : pp 24-30.
... masquerading as the high priest.'' Haidt, Jonathan. "The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment.". Psychol Rev 108 (10-01-01): 814-834.
... sometimes guiding the emotions. Pizarro, David A., and Paul Bloom. "The Intelligence of the Moral Intuitions: Comment on Haidt (2001)". Psychological Review 110, No. 1 (2003): 193-196.
... psychologist at Harvard. Hauser, Marc D. Interview.
... patterns of brain activation. Specifically, they found that the personal dilemmas caused significantly more activity in regions of the cortex called the medial frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate gyrus and angular gyrus. These are regions that are more active in emotionally charged siuations than they are when a person's attention is focussed on something neutral. Greene, Joshua et al. "An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment". Science 293 (2001): 2105-2108.
... his aged mother. Specter, Michael. "The Dangerous Philosopher". The New Yorker (Sept 6, 1999)
... could think it was fun.'' Quoted in Nasar, Sylvia. "Princeton's New Philosopher Draws a Stir." The New York Times, April 10, 1999. Page A1
... lobsters feel pain.'' Quoted in "New Animal Rights Cause Urges, `Free the Lobsters!'." The New York Times, Dec. 31, 1995 p. A25.
10: ``Our Common Humanity Makes Us Weep’’
... the rest of our time together.'' Fermor, Patrick Leigh. A Time of Gifts. Penguin USA, 1988. Page 87
... commemorative banquet in Crete. The story is recounted in Benario, Janice. "Horace, Humanitas and Crete". Amphora (a publication of the American Philological Association) 2:1 (Spring, 2003). For more on Kreipe, who returned to Germany from a POW camp in 1947 and died in 1976, see the entry in this Web Site on German POW's: http://www.specialcamp11.fsnet.co.uk/Generalmajor%20Heinrich%20Kreipe.htm
. . . hated being shut out of.'' Page, Janice. "Sometimes, It's the Good News That Makes the Patient Feel So Bad." The New York Times, August 7, 2001, page F7.
. . . than to her childless neighbors. This mother is quoted in Lessard, Suzannah. "The Split". The New Yorker (1997): pp 72-81.
... happened to be a fellow Marine. Moore, Paul Op. cit. page 86
... makes us weep sometimes.'' Quoted in Fregosi, Paul. Dreams of Empire: Napoleon and the First World War, 1792-1815. Hutchinson, 1989. Page 216
... within religious bounds. Canon 68, Fourth Lateran Council. Translated by Paul Halsall. Available on line at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/lateran4.html
... kinds of idiotic sentimentality.'' Quoted in Browning, Christopher. Op. cit. Page 390
... other than the native bestial hordes. Quoted in Browning, Christopher. Op. cit. Page 394
... Nation expects of you. Quoted in Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1999. Page 25
... in an upcoming election. Astill, James. "The truth behind the Miss World riots." The Guardian, November 30, 2002. Available on line at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,850959,00.html
. . . sent into the Holocaust. This sketch is drawn from Turner, John C. "Henri Tajfel: An Introduction." In Social Groups and Identities, ed. Robinson, W. Peter, 1-23. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 1996.
. . . was left alive.'' Tajfel, Henri. Human Groups and Social Categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Page 2
. . . to know what I was talking about.'' Ibid.
. . . assigned at random. Billig, Michael, and Henri Tajfel. "Social categorization and similarity in intergroup behavior". European Journal of Social Psychology 3 (1973): 27-52.
. . . no gender difference. These studies are summarized in Oakes, Penelope, S. Alexander Haslam, and John C. Turner. Stereotyping and Social Reality. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 1994. pp 15-16
... made less money. Tajfel, Henri. "Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination". Scientific American Vol 223, No. 5 (November, 1970) : pp 96-102.
... over the other team's. Ibid.
. . . ``they'' words. Perdue, Charles W. et al. "Us and Them: Social Categorization and the Process of Intergroup Bias". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (1990): 475-486.
... our kind of person. Don Beck, interview.
... feelings and actions. See, for example, the discussion of ``self-categorization theory'' in Turner, John C. "Henri Tajfel: An Introduction." In Social Groups and Identities, ed. Robinson, W. Peter, 1-23. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 1996.
... the experiments do not capture.'' Horowitz, Donald L. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. University of California Press, 1985. Page 147
... watch your back. Rabbie, J.M. "Determinants of instrumental intra-group cooperation." In Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior, eds. Hinde, Robert A., an